Thesis on agriculture and rural development

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Removing these barriers requires a joint commitment from research institutes, governments, civil society organizations, agricultural companies and consumers. Trees provide a number of services to society, this is well-known: biodiversity, carbon storage, climate change, air purification. As a result, the last decade farmers, policymakers and civil society organizations are showing a growing interest in agroforestry agricultural crops or livestock farming purposefully combined with the cultivation of trees on the same plot.

We already know from previous research that, provided the right choice of tree and provided correct maintenance of trees, farmers can obtain benefits from the system: protection against erosion, risk diversification by diversifying income, creation of a favorable microclimate with functional biodiversity, etc. Nevertheless, the roll-out of the system in Flemish agriculture is proceeding rather slowly. Between start of subsidies for agroforestry and , only ha of agroforestry have been added, and this as on 40 farms. Despite the potential and despite existing subsidies, the broad agricultural sector is apparently still cautious to get involved.

Lieve Borremans presented the different barriers in her doctoral study. Through surveys, interviews and focus groups, she discovered various causes for the reticence of the agricultural sector with regard to this agro-ecological innovation. Farmers formulated technical, economic, institutional, organizational and social concerns and obstacles. Lack of knowledge and useful tools. Development trajectory: investing in research and development.

With the exception of Paul Pardon's recent doctorate ILVO-UGent , which measured the impact of trees on crop production, there is little knowledge available in Flanders about the long-term productivity and compatability of agroforestry. Investment in further research together with pioneers and farmers is necessary to expand this knowledge. Borremans: "There is a need for interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary research projects aimed at creating long-term experimental plots or developing useful tools machines, applications, etc.

Uncertainty about profitability. Development trajectory: creating different earning and financing models. A lack of certainty about profitability is one of the most crucial barriers that prevents farmers from working with agroforestry. This uncertainty is caused by the fact that farmers have to wait a long time for income from wood production and that farmers are not compensated for the social services that the trees supply in the meantime e.

Borremans: "We must therefore focus on creating market mechanisms that enable farmers to valorise their efforts for the environment, landscape and biodiversity. Different types of instruments and arrangements are possible. Think for example of carbon trade, an agroforestry label that creates added value and a cooperative farm structure in which the consumer actively participates.

In addition, companies, banks, consumers and the local community can play a role. Lack of a clear legal framework and flexible support measures. Development trajectory: adjusting and improving the subsidy program and legal framework.

rural development (thesis).pdf

In recent years, the government has taken important steps to encourage the adoption of agroforestry by farmers. Borremans: "Both developments are positive, but there is a need for further adjustments and improvements in order to arrive at a fully-fledged legal framework and an attractive and effective subsidy program.

In the Netherlands, this is done via GreenDeals, initiatives for sustainable growth in which the government and society collaborate from the start in an interactive way. In this way, the government wants to facilitate and accelerate the development of sustainable initiatives, while at the same time guiding future policy.

Knowledge and expertise are not communicated effectively enough. Development trajectory: focusing on communication and education.

The knowledge of agroforestry among farmers and other stakeholders in the agricultural sector is limited and the expertise on the cultivation of trees in an agricultural context is spread over various organizations. Over 66 years since its independence, India has made quadrupled progress towards food-grain production. Prior to the mids India relied on imports and food aid to meet domestic requirements. However, two years of severe drought in and convinced India to reform its agricultural policy and adopted significant policy reforms focused on the goal of food grain self-sufficiency.

7 Agricultural Inventions You Need In Your Life

This ushered in India's Green Revolution and it began with the decision to adopt superior yielding, disease resistant varieties in combination with better farming knowledge to improve productivity. India's arable land area of Food security, nutritional security, profitability and sustainability are the main principles of present and future agricultural development. Study was conducted in deoghar district of Jharkhand to ascertain the extent of adoption of improved dairy management practices by the women dairy farmers.

The data were collected from santhal region of Jharkhand.


From santhal region one From santhal region one district was selected purposively on the basis of large number of people doing dairy farming and the milk procuring union of state is also situated in the district. Then from deoghar district deoghar block was selected purposively on the basis of maximum number of dairy farmers. From deoghar block Top five villages with maximum women dairy farmers was selected purposively.

From each village 24 women dairy farmers were selected randomly. Thus, in total, women dairy farmers were selected, as the respondents for this study with the help of structure interview schedule. From the study it was observed that majority of the respondents It was also observed that majority The development of agriculture plays a prominent role in a nation's economy, more so in the case of developing countries of the world.

In India, agriculture is considered the backbone of the economy. Given the diversity of agro-ecological Given the diversity of agro-ecological conditions across the country and the wide range of producers small, and medium, large , the Indian agricultural enterprise is inevitably faced with a great diversity of needs, opportunities and prospects. With information being identified as a crucial component of the agricultural value chain, there is an urgent need to devise strategies which will enable improved access to such information as well as facilitate the exchange of information between stakeholders.

Many impact evaluation studies reveal that the public-sector extension services despite using a variety of extension programs have not seen much success because they lack technological integration. Studies show that agricultural productivity is considerably influenced by human capital consisting of agricultural and rural extension programs. In this regard there is a need to probe into the factors that influence the current usage pattern of ICT among the educators and scientists involved in extension. This research paper makes an attempt to study the same. This study is concentrated in the Northeastern region NER of India as the region reportedly lags behind in technology implementation and adoption by farmers.

A total of respondents from 12 villages were randomly selected and data were collected and analysed by using appropriate statistical tools. According to the response from the respondents and after analysis of data, the level of effectiveness of various information delivery methods used by ATMA was found to be medium It was also found that variables like age, gender, education, occupation, farming experience, extension contact, innovativeness and risk orientation have a positively significantly correlation with the level of effectiveness.

While variables like, annual income and mass media exposure have a positively non-significant correlation with the level of effectiveness of the information delivery methods used by ATMA. Rachel Thongni.

Today more than ever, smallholder family farmers and rural communities require access to information and communication to make their voices heard and change their lives for the better. In developing countries, smallholder farms account for 80 percent of all farm holdings and their output feeds billions of people. International research shows that enhancing the efficiency and productivity of family farms is one of the most effective ways to reduce poverty.

Bruce Girard. Injudicious and haphazard use of chemical fertilizer in agriculture is a matter of concern in recent times. To avoid deterioration of soil in long run and visualizing the importance of balance nutrient in crop production. The soil health The soil health card SHC provides soil health data to get appropriate guidance to the farmers for the efficient use of fertilizer to cultivate crops based on soil health analysis. The SHC is a simple document, which contains useful data on soil based on chemical analysis of the soil to describe soil health in terms of its nutrient availability and its physical and chemical properties.

The soil health card is made available online also for the farmers. To understand the feelings of the farmers against this system, there is an urgent need to study the degree of positive or negative disposition associated with farmer towards the usefulness and application of soil health card. Thus the present study on farmers' perception regarding soil health card was undertaken. The study was conducted in Sultanpur district with soil health card holders. The findings revealed that majority of the farmers were having knowledge and understanding about the utility of soil health card.

The findings further reveals that maximum number of soil health card holders were having favorable attitude towards soil health card followed by less favorable and most favorable attitude towards soil health card. Among constraints, received soil health card after crop harvest was the major constraint faced by majority of the respondents.

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Oil seed crops generally are one of the most important crops in the world. Their role in human diet and industrial application cannot be under estimated. The by-products hull, meal and oil of oil seed crops had been integrated in to The by-products hull, meal and oil of oil seed crops had been integrated in to human and animal diets due to its nutrients compositions.

Mustard is the main cash crop of the farmers in Karauli district. The farmers having irrigation facility available by tube well and farm ponds. White rust and frost is the serious problem in this area and soil productivity is medium. So many farmers adopted Line sowing for mustard cultivation. Irrigation generally mad by flood. The most of farmers done the main entrepreneur of animal production with the agriculture.

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For transfer of new agricultural practices to the farmers, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Scientist playing major role and trained to farmers continuously. In this connection the present study was conducted in the Karauli district to know training needs of farmers and different level of training needs between beneficiaries and non beneficiary respondents towards improved production practices of Mustard.

In the result of study show that the highest training needs was expressed about "Intercultural operations and weed management" "selection of seed and seed rate" and "Plant protection measures" is the most needed by the overall categories of the farmers. Environmental and economic benefits accrued by tribal women in Jabalpur district of Madhya Pradesh through Rangeeni Lac production on Butea monosperma. The present study entitled "Adoption Behaviour of okra growers in Arajiline block of Varanasi district in Uttar Pradesh.

A total of respondents were selected and interviewed randomly from a list of Okra growers to collect the primary data on the basis of objectives and variables of the study. Further, the data was tabulated and analysed statistically to draw appropriate conclusions. It was found that most of the okra growers had marginal size of land holding less than 1 ha and were involved in agriculture okra cultivation as the principal occupation with an annual income between Rs.

Majority of the respondents had medium level of exposure to various sources of information for acquiring the information about okra production technology amongst the information sources. However, overall low level of contact with extension personnel were observed among the respondents.

The findings of the study revealed that the majority of the okra growers had medium level of knowledge regarding recommended okra production technology. In respect of the correlation analysis, the variables land holding, organizational participation and annual income were found to have non-significant relationship with adoption at 0. However, the variables education, size of family, social participation, annual income, knowledge, source of information and extension contact were found to be significant in correlation with adoption behavior.

Lack of access to finance is a key impediment to farmers in improving the efficiency of their productions and adopting better technologies. Credit not only plays a pivotal role in not only increasing agricultural production but also in Credit not only plays a pivotal role in not only increasing agricultural production but also in improving the standard of living especially for farmers. Hence the present study was undertaken to find out the constraint encountered by the users and reasons of non adoption by non users of Kisan Credit Card scheme.