Selim Turan graduated from the Academy in and the next few years were a phase of exploration and seeking his own path as an artist. In his depictions of subjects from daily life, such as fishermen, school children and markets, Turan viewed his themes from a structural angle, interpreting them through his brush. These paintings mark the beginning of Turan's search for individual expression. During his early years in Paris, like others of his generation, he was influenced by abstract art and became one of the Turkish artists who embarked on a critical change of direction as a result of their experiences in that city.
Unlike previous artists who during the late Ottoman and early Republican eras had been sent to Paris as cultural ambassadors and were expected only to bring back existing art trends to Turkey, the generation who went to Paris after entered into a dialogue with contemporary art movements. They held solo person exhibitions at leading galleries of the time and participated in group exhibitions which put submissions through a selection process.
Their works were purchased for leading museum collections in France, Belgium, Denmark, the Netherlands and Austria. This experience enabled him to absorb the artistic approach of the time at first hand, and he went on to become one of the foremost representatives of this generation.
These works display Selim's deep-rooted aim to pass "beyond the visible". Focal infection revisited. Br J Rheumatol ; Slots J. Casual or causal relationship between periodontal infection and non-oral disease? J Dent Res ; The role of systemic conditions and disorders in periodontal disease. Periodontol ; Advances in the pathogenesis of periodontitis: Summary of developments, clinical implications and future directions.
Gibbons RV. Germs, Dr. Billings, and the theory of focal infection. Clin Infect Dis ; Hunter W. Oral sepsis as a cause of disease. Br Med J ; A history of oral sepsis as a cause of disease. Periodontal infection as a possible risk factor for preterm low birth weight. Periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus: A two-way relationship. Ann Periodontol ; Azarpazhooh A, Leake JL. Systematic review of the association between respiratory diseases and oral health.
Page RC. The pathobiology of periodontal disease may affect systemic disease: Inversion of a paradigm. Scannapieco FA. Position Paper, Periodontal disease as a potential risk factor for systemic diseases.
Contradicciones (Original): The thesis-antithesis-synthesis mystery
Paquette DW. The periodontal infection-systemic disease link: a review of the truth or myth. In a similar way, a one-sidedness or restrictedness in the determination of Finite Purpose together with the implications of earlier stages leads to Realized Purpose. I go to a restaurant for the purpose of having dinner, for instance, and order a salad. My purpose of having dinner particularizes as a pre-given object—the salad. But this object or particularity—e.
We can picture Finite Purpose this way:. In the dialectical moment, Finite Purpose is determined by the previously ignored content, or by that other content. The one-sidedness of Finite Purpose requires the dialectical process to continue through a series of syllogisms that determines Finite Purpose in relation to the ignored content.
The first syllogism links the Finite Purpose to the first layer of content in the object: the Purpose or universality e. But the particularity e. Thus, the first singularity e. This new singularity e. In the speculative moment, Finite Purpose is determined by the whole process of development from the moment of understanding—when it is defined by particularizing into a pre-given object with a content that it ignores—to its dialectical moment—when it is also defined by the previously ignored content.
We can picture the speculative moment of Finite Purpose this way:. As soon as Finite Purpose presents all the content, there is a return process a series of return arrows that establishes each layer and redefines Finite Purpose as Realized Purpose. We can picture Realized Purpose this way:. Instead of trying to squeeze the stages into a triadic form cf.
This sort of process might reveal a kind of argument that, as Hegel had promised, might produce a comprehensive and exhaustive exploration of every concept, form or determination in each subject matter, as well as raise dialectics above a haphazard analysis of various philosophical views to the level of a genuine science. These interpreters reject the idea that there is any logical necessity to the moves from stage to stage.
Solomon writes, for instance,. The connections are anything but entailments, and the Phenomenology could always take another route and other starting points. Solomon A transcendental argument begins with uncontroversial facts of experience and tries to show that other conditions must be present—or are necessary—for those facts to be possible. Taylor 97, —7; for a critique of this view, see Pinkard 7, In his examination of the epistemological theory of the Phenomenology , for instance, Kenneth R.
Ermanno Bencivenga offers an interpretation that combines a narrative approach with a concept of necessity.
While some of the moves from stage to stage are driven by syntactic necessity, other moves are driven by the meanings of the concepts in play. A logic that deals only with the forms of logical arguments and not the meanings of the concepts used in those argument forms will do no better in terms of preserving truth than the old joke about computer programs suggests: garbage in, garbage out.
But if you plug in something for those terms that is untrue or meaningless garbage in , then the syntax of formal logic will lead to an untrue or meaningless conclusion garbage out. Against these logics, Hegel wanted to develop a logic that not only preserved truth, but also determined how to construct truthful claims in the first place.
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A logic that defines concepts semantics as well as their relationships with one another syntax will show, Hegel thought, how concepts can be combined into meaningful forms. Maybee xvii—xx. In the Phenomenology , for instance, the moves are driven by syntax, semantics, and by phenomenological factors.
Sometimes a move from one stage to the next is driven by a syntactic need—the need to stop an endless, back-and-forth process, for instance, or to take a new path after all the current options have been exhausted cf. And sometimes a move is driven by a phenomenological need or necessity—by requirements of consciousness , or by the fact that the Phenomenology is about a consciousness that claims to be aware of or to know something.
The logic of the Phenomenology is thus a phenomeno -logic, or a logic driven by logic—syntax and semantics—and by phenomenological considerations. Still, interpreters such as Quentin Lauer have suggested that, for Hegel,. Lauer 3. Other scholars who also believe there is a logical necessity to the dialectics of the Phenomenology include Hyppolite 78—9 and H. Harris xii.
Even in these logics, there can often be more than one path from some premises to the same conclusion, logical operators can be dealt with in different orders, and different sets of operations can be used to reach the same conclusions. We can begin to see why Hegel was motivated to use a dialectical method by examining the project he set for himself, particularly in relation to the work of David Hume and Immanuel Kant see entries on Hume and Kant.
Although we may have to use careful observations and do experiments, our knowledge of the world is basically a mirror or copy of what the world is like. Take the scientific concept of cause, for instance. According to that concept of cause, to say that one event causes another is to say that there is a necessary connection between the first event the cause and the second event the effect , such that, when the first event happens, the second event must also happen.
It follows that the necessary, causal connection between the two events must itself be out there in the world. There is nothing in the world itself that our idea of cause mirrors or copies. Nicholas Copernicus was the Polish astronomer who said that the earth revolves around the sun, rather than the other way around.
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We can reestablish a connection between reason and knowledge, however, Kant suggested, if we say—not that knowledge revolves around what the world is like—but that knowledge revolves around what we are like. For the purposes of our knowledge, Kant said, we do not revolve around the world—the world revolves around us. Because we are rational creatures, we share a cognitive structure with one another that regularizes our experiences of the world.
This intersubjectively shared structure of rationality—and not the world itself—grounds our knowledge. While the intersubjectively shared structure of our reason might allow us to have knowledge of the world from our perspective, so to speak, we cannot get outside of our mental, rational structures to see what the world might be like in itself. How, for Hegel, can we get out of our heads to see the world as it is in itself?